The Anomaly Which is Death

Do not invite death by the error of your life,
or bring on destruction by the works of your hands;
because God did not make death,
and he does not delight in the death of the living.

For he created all things so that they might exist;
the generative forces of the world are wholesome,
and there is no destructive poison in them,
and the dominion of Hades is not on earth.
For righteousness is immortal.
But the ungodly by their words and deeds summoned death;
considering him a friend, they pined away
and made a covenant with him,
because they are fit to belong to his company.

(Wisdom of Solomon 1:12-16)


“Created in the ‘image’ of God, human persons are called to grow toward the divine ‘likeness,’ to assume the very qualities or virtues of divine life itself. This process of growth toward theosis or deification is nevertheless the result of God’s own initiative, the free gift of his unbounded love. The sanctifying, deifying grace that effects the transfiguration of human existence consists of divine energia, ‘energies’ or attributes of God, infused into the personal life of the believer through the action of the Holy Spirit. Divine initiative, however, must be complemented by human initiative. Theosis, accordingly, is the result of the human will working with the divine will in the process of synergy, or cooperation between God and his human creatures. Its purpose is to lead the human person back to the primal state of perfection mythically depicted in the creation story of Genesis 2-3. This ‘primal state’ is prelapsarian, untainted by sin and consequent death. This implies that death is an anomaly within the created order. It is an unwilled and unintended intrusion into earthly affairs that must be overcome if human life is to attain its true potential and its true potential and its true goal.

While the death of the physical organism may be considered either a blessing to bring an end to man’s alienation from God, or as a natural and necessary part of the life cycle, it remains from the point of view of Orthodox theology and experience a spiritual enemy that is a much a cause of human sin as it is a consequence of it. Insofar as the dread of death provokes rebellion, aggression and alienation from God and other persons, it leads to a multitude of sinful behaviors, all of which are ‘attempts to fill voids’ of meaninglessness and threatened annihilation. The dread of death, in other words, is a primary motivator of our behavior. Consequently, death itself can hardly be considered as morally neutral. God has chosen us not for death, but for life, whose telos or ultimate goal is eternal communion with the Persons of the Holy Trinity. From a Christian perspective, this mean that our true death and rebirth occur at our baptism: the moment we are plunged into the regenerating ‘waters of the Jordan’ and, in the name of the Holy Trinity, are raised up and united to the communion of saints, both living and dead, who constitute the Body of the glorified Lord.

Therefore it might be argued that because of the Cross of Christ, physical death no longer threatens us. It has lost its sting. The ‘last enemy’ has been transformed into a welcome passage, a glorious Pascha, leading to everlasting life and joy. As true as this may be, however, the ‘last enemy’ continues to hold sway over us in the form of the dying process. Anticipation of prolonged and meaningless suffering, far more than the event of death itself, is the chief cause of anxiety and despair for the terminally ill.” (John Breck, The Sacred Gift of Life, pp 214-215)

The Lord said:  “I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and curse; therefore choose life, that you and your descendants may live, loving the LORD your God, obeying his voice, and cleaving to him; for that means life to you and length of days, that you may dwell in the land which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them.”  (Deuteronomy 30:19-20)

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