“I should like to present a lengthy citation from the part of the Commentary on Genesis which forms the basis for discord over the continuity of Theodore’s [of Mopsuestia] earlier and later work. Theodore writes:
“I have heard some inquire, if God had foreknowledge of Adam’s disobedience, why did he give him through his commandment occasion to disobey [him]?
For this reason, I answer, that God knew very well, that mortality was of use to human beings. If they remained immortal, they would sin incessantly. In addition, because it is useful for them, that in the annihilation of the body in death the [body] of sin is also annihilated. He did not give the best to humanity immediately, in order that he [his dignity] might not be violated. He first of all gave the commandment, which he knew would not be observed. He wanted to show thereby, that human beings, promised immortality for their obedience, had so little trust in their creator and benefactor, that they hoped, through their disobedience, to obtain not only immortality, but even to attain to the stature of divinity. If their body had possessed immortality, how much easier they would have believed it possible themselves to become gods through their disobedience! [God] first of all showed through issuing of his commandment, and through the disobedience of Adam, that mortality is useful. Therefore, he endowed this mortality [upon humanity]. That he has equipped humanity for mortal existence is shown by their male and female forms, which we can recognize as making possible the production of children from the very beginning. Therefore, the structuring [of the human being] was fitted to suit mortal life.” – Theodore of Mopsuestia.
As can be seen, the fragment denies that humanity was created immortal, instead positing immortality as a reward for obedience, and insisting that human mortality was considered by God a useful instrument. If humanity had been immortal, then it would not have had any incentive not to sin, because, as sin consists of a desire to be like God, our possession of immortality would have made it far easier to countenance sinning, as our being like God would have been seen as an even more realistically achievable end.” (Richard Paul Cumming, St. Vladmir’s Theological Quarterly: Vol. 56, Number 2, 2012, pp 186-187)
That humanity becoming immortal is contingent on human obedience to God, makes the life and death of Jesus Christ ever more meaningful to us. We come to understand why we need Christ and are indebted to Him for our salvation – we did not, and could not have achieved salvation on our own. The Law could not bring about the obedience needed for our salvation. In fact the Law, though given as a gift for salvation, showed how disobedient we were as a people.
“Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Philippians 2:5-11)
In Christ being obedient to the Father in dying for us on the cross, Christ opens the doors to Paradise and to immortality for all of humanity. In Christ’s obedience, we all are given eternal life. This is not so much punishment for sin, but true filial obedience out of love. Christ does what humanity has failed to do. Adam and Eve were disobedient unto death, Jesus Christ is obedient unto death. The first Adam’s disobedience brought death to us all, while the new Adam’s obedience means life for us.
“Then as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s obedience many will be made righteous.” (Romans 5:18-19)