If, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. Then as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s obedience many will be made righteous. Law came in, to increase the trespass; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 5:17-21)
In Western Christianity there has been endless debate about justification, especially between Reformers and the Roman Catholics but also between various Protestant denominations. Righteousness and justice are grouped as synonymous terms, often interpreted in a juridical way. But righteousness can also mean holiness more than legal justice, which seems to me how it is interpreted more in the Orthodox tradition. Righteousness can also be equated with salvation. When the first generation of Lutheran Reformers approached Orthodox Patriarch Jeremias to discuss theology, they changed the language in their documents to read “salvation by faith” rather than “justification by faith.” They were savvy enough to realize this would sound more theological correct to the Orthodox.
Apparently at one time in Judaism, righteousness/ justice was also used to mean almsgiving/ charity. Certainly if one reads the New Testament substituting almsgiving for righteousness we get a totally different view of God and salvation [Try it in the quote above from Romans 5:17-21)]. Biblical scholar Nathan Eubank writes:
“The Ancient rabbis used to tell the story of King Munbaz of Adiabene, a first-century C.E. convert to Judaism, who emptied his storehouses to feed the hungry during a time of famine. The king’s brothers were outraged and demanded that the king explain why he would throw away the family’s great wealth. In response, the king argued that by feeding the hungry he had acquired a greater, longer-lasting fortune. He cited Psalm 89:15 to prove his point: ‘Justice (tsedeq) and judgment are the foundation of your throne.’ The rabbis commonly understood ‘righteousness’ when it appears in the Hebrew bible to mean ‘almsgiving.’ Read in this light, the psalm seemed to promise that possessions given to the poor would earn treasure in heaven, under the very throne of God.
King Munbaz explained: ‘My ancestors stored up treasures below, but I have stored up treasurers above . . . in a place where the hand cannot reach’ (Tosefta Peah 4.18). According to the rabbis who recorded the tale, this Gentile king learned that the best way to prepare for the future is to give to the needy and be rewarded by God, if not in this life then certainly in the life to come. The belief that God faithfully repays good deeds has deep roots in the biblical tradition, going back well before the birth of Christianity. As Proverbs 19:17 puts it, ‘Whoever cares for the poor lends to the Lord, who will pay back the sum in full.‘” (“The Repayment of Good Deeds in Matthew’s Sermon”, THE BIBLE TODAY, January/February 2017)
The notion that God receives every gift of alms we give to the poor and stores it up for us in heaven was widely believed and taught in the early church and is common sermon fare among the Cappodician fathers. Whether or not they were familiar with this Jewish tradition, I don’t know, but obviously they came to the same interpretive conclusions about what the Scriptures taught about the importance of charity.
Sometimes philosophers work so hard to get a word to mean only one thing, so that they can use that word in one and only one way. Sometimes, to understand the Word of God, we have to move in a different direction, realizing the depth and layers of meaning found in a word or phrase. Read again St. Paul in the text below putting in almsgiving/ charity where the text says righteous/righteousness. We begin to hear another message about God which is consistent with the theology that God is love.
But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction; since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, they are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins; it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies him who has faith in Jesus. (Romans 3:21-26)