“And certainly, Christ, our Passover, has been sacrificed in our place.” (1 Corinthians 5:7, (EOB)
“... the passover is not a type of the passion but a type of Christ Himself...” (Origen, 3rd Century)
From the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox until the Feast of the Ascension of our Lord, we Orthodox celebrate Pascha – the resurrection of our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ. We sing the Paschal verses gloriously and joyfully showcasing “PASCHA“, the Pascha of the Lord:
Today, a sacred Pascha is revealed to us, A new and holy Pascha, A mystical Pascha, A Pascha worthy of veneration, A Pascha which is Christ the Redeemer, A blameless Pascha, A great Pascha, a Pascha of the faithful, A Pascha which has opened for us the gates of Paradise, A Pascha which sanctifies all the faithful.
Pascha of beauty, The Pascha of the Lord, A Pascha worthy of all honor has dawned for us. Pascha! Let us embrace each other joyously. O Pascha, ransom from affliction! For today as from a bridal chamber Christ has shown forth from the tomb and filled the women with joy saying: Proclaim the glad tidings to the apostles.
And one thing that becomes clear is that Pascha, though being applied to the event of the Resurrection of Christ, is also Christ Himself. As we sing: “A Pascha which is Christ the Redeemer“. We could substitute in those hymns the word “Christ” or “Messiah” or the Name “Jesus” in each instance where “Pascha” appears. That would enrich our understanding of the hymn, of the Feast, of salvation and of Christ Himself. Pascha, like salvation, like Light, like the Word, like Love is a Who not a what: Jesus Christ. Pascha is not just an event, a Feast, the 8th day – for it is the revelation of our God in Christ. God has made “it” into our union with Him.
The idea is completely Scriptural. In 1 Corinthians 5:7 St. Paul calls Jesus Christ our Passover. [Often in the English translations of this verse they translate the text as “Paschal lamb“, but the word lamb is not in the Greek text, but is added by translators to try to make sense of the text to people for whom Pascha doesn’t mean much. The Eastern Orthodox Bible (EOB) and David Bentley Hart in his “A Translation of the New Testament” both translate the text to say Christ is our passover.]
The idea that Christ is our Passover is defended by the 3rd Century’s most famous Christian biblical scholar, Origen. As translator and scholar Robert Daly notes:
“Origen‘s central insight is that the passover is not a figure or type of the passion of Christ but a figure of Christ Himself, of Christ’s passing over to the Father (of which the passion was only a historical part) and, by reason of our incorporation into Christ, of our own still ongoing passing over with Christ to the Father.” (ORIGEN: TREATISE ON THE PASSOVER, pp 6-7)
When we read the Passover narrative in Exodus we are reading about Christ, not merely about history or just a prefiguring of the passion events. As Jesus teaches in John 5:46 – “If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote of me.” [So too we find the same idea in Luke 24:27 (And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.) and in John 1:45 – (Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, “We have found him of whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.”) Moses wrote about Jesus, not just about history, nor prophecy, but about Jesus Christ.]
For Origen the Passover is not merely an historical event which happened in the past. Origen writes, “the Passover still takes place today.” We enter into the Passover, into Christ, in our own baptisms. The Passover is living, and life-giving, not some event that occurred long ago in history which we can only read about – nor something we “remember” in ritual. We participate in Christ, in the Passover, in salvation. It is Christ who makes Pascha, the Passover personal – His person to whom we are united, but also for each of us in our union with the incarnate God.