for your anger does not produce God’s righteousness. (James 1:20)
Put away from you all bitterness and wrath and anger and wrangling and slander, together with all malice, and be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ has forgiven you. (Ephesians 4:31-32)
St. Paul warns that those who act in anger will not inherit the kingdom of heaven (Galatians 5:20-21). The spiritual literature of Christianity through the centuries kept anger (or one of its manifestations – wrath, rage, revenge, hatred, etc) as one of the deadly sins or passions which Christians were to work to overcome. And though the New Testament does allow for anger as long as it doesn’t involve sin (Ephesians 4:26), anger was viewed as a dangerous and destructive passion for it often overwhelms the rational thought process and pushes people to act hastily and with force disregarding wisdom or a measured response.
Christ does not want you to feel the least hatred, resentment, anger or rancor towards anyone in any way or on account of any transitory thing whatsoever. This is proclaimed throughout the four Gospels.” (St. Maximos the Confessor, THE PHILOKALIA, Kindle Loc. 13842-44)
Anger can give us a sense of empowerment – even when we are in the wrong or have not authority in a situation. Our angry response towards others is often more a measure of our own feelings than a proper evaluation of the wrong we think someone else has done. Anger can arise in prayer, making us think it is righteous, but often is a sign of our own spiritual illness.
When you pray as you should, thoughts will come to you which make you feel that you have a real right to be angry. But anger with your neighbor is never right. If you search you will find that things can always be arranged without anger. So do all you can not to break out into anger. Take care that, while appearing to cure someone else, you yourself do not remain uncured, in this way thwarting your prayer. (St. John Cassian, THE PHILOKALIA, Kindle Loc. 1302-8)
The cure for anger? Humility is a cure all for much of what ails us spiritually in Orthodox literature. The humble person maintains an even keel no matter what is going on – be it praise or criticism – and does not react to others but carefully chooses their actions. Humility stops us from getting emotionally charged by everything that happens around us. But anger can also be overcome by the combination of courage and mercy – which may not seem like they can go together, but they are at the heart of what it is to be a Christian.
Nothing so converts anger into joy and gentleness as courage and mercy. Like a siege-engine, courage shatters enemies attacking the soul from without, mercy those attacking it from within. (St Gregory of Sinai, THE PHILOKALIA, Kindle 43079-43081)