David the Image of Repentance

This is the 4th post in this blog series meditating on Psalm 51.  The previous post is Psalm 51: What Do “I” Do?

The inscription at the beginning of Psalm 51 gives us a solid clue about the context in which Psalm 51 was written.  It reads: “To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet came to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba.”

One can read the account of David’s sin with Bathsheba and the aftermath in 2 Samuel 11-12.  King David lusted after Bathsheba, wife of the faithful soldier Uriah.  David commits adultery with Bathsheba resulting in her being pregnant  while her husband is off to war.  Trying to cover up his sin, the King gives orders for a troop withdrawal during a battle that ensures that Uriah is killed in battle.  Then King David feels he can legitimately claim Bathsheba as his wife.  The Prophet Nathan, knowing David’s sin and God’s judgment of David, confronts the King by telling him a parable of injustice.  David is outraged by the evil man in the parable but then realizes the parable is about himself and that he is guilty of grievous sin.   We read in 2 Samuel 12:11-14, Nathan pronouncing judgment on King David:

Thus says the LORD, ‘Behold, I will raise up evil against you out of your own house; and I will take your wives before your eyes, and give them to your neighbor, and he shall lie with your wives in the sight of this sun. For you did it secretly; but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun.'” David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the LORD.” And Nathan said to David, “The LORD also has put away your sin; you shall not die. Nevertheless, because by this deed you have utterly scorned the LORD, the child that is born to you shall die.”

This is the moment to which the inscription of Psalm 51 refers.  All David says is, “I have sinned against the LORD.”  No remorse is expressed, no promise of reformation or change or improvement, no excuse is offered, no attempt to justify what he did.   David simply acknowledges “God is right, I am wrong.”  David’s reaction to knowing he has sinned is very much reflected in Psalm 51.  David knows both he needs God and that God is right in judging him; whatever  God is now going to do is going to be right, just, the right and needed thing.  David accepts the consequences of his own behavior and of God’s judgment.  David believes that his duty is to own his sin and then turn the whole ‘affair’ over to God for God to deal with.  David recognizes God is legitimately the judge in his case but tells God to take into account that he is now owning his sin and asking God to do away with his guilt.  David is relying on what God said after the Great Flood:

… the LORD said in his heart, “I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again destroy every living creature as I have done.”    (Genesis 8:21)


David knows the merciful nature of God, but also knows that his own sin is deserving of death.  He asks God instead to be merciful, even though he showed no mercy to Uriah.

As the story unfolds David does fast and weep and pray when he realizes that the illegitimate, yet innocent child produced by his adultery was going to die.  But when he learns that the baby of Uriah’s wife has died, David stops his lamentation. Note in 2 Samuel 12:15 the child is not called David’s baby, but the child of Uriah’s wife, even Bathsheba is not mentioned by name.  The biblical author wants us to be clear about how egregious this sin is.  Neither the baby nor Bathsheba belong to David, yet he greedily acted as if they were his.   Then in 2 Samuel 12:21-23, we read:

Then his servants said to him, “What is this thing that you have done? You fasted and wept for the child while it was alive; but when the child died, you arose and ate food.” He said, “While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept; for I said, ‘Who knows whether the LORD will be gracious to me, that the child may live?’ But now he is dead; why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.”

We see in the narrative exactly the idea of “repentance” expressed in the Psalm.  We need to allow God to be God, and to ask God to do things according to God’s own nature.  We need to learn what it is to be human – created in God’s image and likeness, created to have dominion over all creatures, but still subject to the Lordship of God.  We need God to do all the things necessary to make us human despite our inclination to sin: show us mercy, cleanse us, teach us, deliver us, fill us with Himself.  That happens only if we agree to it.  David realizes that he has sinned, he can’t now walk that one back or change it.  The deed is done and now the consequences must be accepted as well.  David knows God is right in what God does.  David owns the fact that his own behavior has terrible consequences for some innocent people.   David is not bargaining with God but does put his hope in God.  He hopes God’s mercy will include the child of Uriah’s wife not dying, but he recognizes his own deed has consequences and God is good and right in what God does.

Of course, with our modern sensibilities, we still wonder, why did the baby have to die?  What did the baby do?  The story is not about a judgment on the child.  We could also ask, why did Uriah have to die?  Because David willed it.  David willed Uriah’s death so he could have Bathseba.  But the other price paid is a second innocent victim, the child of Uriah’s wife dies as well.  In every sense of the word, David is guilty of a double homicide in order to get his way.  That is what he recognizes.  Sin is not private but affects others as well.

David realizes he needs God to be God and to act toward himself as only God can do.  The price David paid to experience God’s mercy is two innocent people died.  Why did it take such a heavy price before David realized God’s nature?  Why are we humans the way we are?  Why do we keep putting God to the test?  How many more sins will we commit, how many more innocent people will die before we accept the Lordship of God?  That is why we should be broken-hearted when we think about our own sins, or the brokenness of the world around us.    What all has to happen before we stop sinning and turn to God to receive His mercy freely without any more cost to anyone?  The world pays a heavy price for our self-willfulness.  While there are many more violent examples, we only have to think about our own addiction to consumption and creating waste to see how “I” impact the world.  Someone, somewhere pays the price for my wastefulness.

Psalm 51 shows us that repentance brings us to the mercy of God.  And then we realize where the Liturgy fits in for it shows us a different way to come to the mercy of God.  We don’t need to sin to experience God’s forgiveness and mercy.  We can approach God with thanksgiving for God’s goodness, and totally freely enter into the mercy and love of God in thanksgiving.

King David in repentance promises God three things in verses 51:12-15 – to teach transgressors God’s way, to sing aloud of God’s salvation and to praise God.

Restore to me the joy of your salvation, and uphold me with a willing spirit. Then I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners will return to you.

Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God, God of my salvation, and my tongue will sing aloud of your deliverance.

O Lord, open my lips, and my mouth shall show forth your praise.

A life of repentance, or spending the remaining time of our life in repentance (as we pray at the Liturgy) means being a witness to others about God’s ways and also of singing of God’s salvation and praising God in one’s life.  Here we see the full connection between repentance and thanksgiving, between Psalm 51 and the Divine Liturgy.

In the Liturgy’s prayers we also tell God all the things God is to do for us, just like we do in Psalm 51.  But in the Liturgy the context is thanksgiving, not penance.  We pray that God’s will be done which includes our becoming the people that God created us to be to carry out His will.   In repentance we can experience the mercy of God even though others and us might experience the negative consequence of our sins.  In the Liturgy on the other hand, we all experience the mercy of God while giving thanks for all the blessings that others and we have received.  Thus we even give thanks for the Liturgy as being the best way for the world which God loves and for us to experience the mercy of God.

Create in me a clean heart, O God,

and put a new and right spirit within me.

Do not cast me away from your presence,

and do not take your holy spirit from me.

Restore to me the joy of your salvation,

and sustain in me a willing spirit.

Then I will teach transgressors your ways,

and sinners will return to you.

(Psalm 51)

Next:  The Prayer of Manasseh

Psalm 51: What Do “I” Do?

24873289413_680bc62134This is the third post in his blog series exploring Psalm 51.  The previous post is Repentance: Telling God What to Do.

If we take Psalm 51 to be the Psalm of repentance, and that David as the author of this Psalm to be a model of repentance, we can then learn from David’s own behavior how he understood repentance.  What does King David the Psalmist promise to do in Psalm 51?   We’ve already seen that much of the Psalm is telling God what to do.  Only in a few verses does David talk about what he is doing as a person who is repenting:

For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. Against you, you only, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in your sight, so that you are justified in your sentence and blameless in your judgment. Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.


Theophan Whitfield writes that King David “acknowledges his guilt and presents this acknowledgment as the reason, which justifies his plea for mercy.” (“Hearing Psalm 51: Masoretic Hebrew vs. LXX Greek”, FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOR OF PROFESSOR PAUL NADIM TARAZI, p 45).  We don’t ask God’s mercy as if bargaining – be merciful to me God and I promise to … repent, be better, change my ways, be good, sin no more.  In Psalm 51, THE Psalm of repentance, David seeks God’s forgiveness based purely on his own acknowledgement that he needs God’s mercy because he has sinned against God.   He is saying, I come before you God because you want sinners to stand before you and recognize their sinfulness.  We are to do what Adam and Eve failed to do from the beginning.  We are to learn from their failure and admit our faults and acknowledge that there is no reason for God to forgive us because in fact we are not going to become perfect, sinless beings.  We approach God not because we are sinless but precisely because we are sinners in need of God’s mercy.   So we have to stand before God in humble honesty about own our behavior (including our sins) and realize God is right in whatever or however God decides to deal with us.  We do tell God – “remember you are merciful” and then we admit our sin and say to God, now be God.  David in the Psalm takes the stance that being honest to God is all we can do.  Don’t deny your sin or blame someone else.  Be courageous and humble, acknowledging who you are and what you have done.  The Psalmist in effect is saying to God, I will not behave like Adam and Eve – I will not try to hide from you (or hide my sin from you).  I will not blame anyone else for what I’ve done.  I come forward and boldly stand in your presence because You are good and love humankind.  Show me Your love and mercy which I don’t deserve, but I so greatly need.

King David goes on in the Psalm to say:

Then I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners will return to you.

my tongue will sing aloud of your deliverance.

my mouth shall show forth your praise.

were I to give a burnt offering, you would not be pleased. The sacrifice acceptable to God is a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise.


Note David never promises that he will become sinless or that he will reform his life.  In the great Psalm of repentance, David never repents, nor even mentions repentance.  Literally, neither the word “repent” or “repentance” is found in Psalm 51.  While the Psalm clearly is that of a sinner, caught in sin, approaching God, it shows us a side to repentance that we often forget – we approach God despite our sinfulness because God is the Lord and we proclaim that even as sinners.   God is merciful and forgiving, that is the truth on which we rely.  It is why we do the Divine Liturgy.  As Good Shepherd, God calls us to the Liturgy, not because we are shining, spotless, pure and sinless, but because we each are the Psalmist who has sinned and we need God to be God (merciful, forgiving) so that we can become fully human.

King David in Psalm 51 promises little to God but acknowledges his sinfulness.  I might say “merely” acknowledges, but it appears in the Psalm that acknowledging one’s sinfulness is what required of us.  We don’t have to promise God anything – reform, change, improvement, a new me.  We do have to acknowledge that we sin before God and that God has every right to judge us.  We don’t reject that God is Lord, but accept it and humbly acknowledge that God determines what is good, not us.  Then David says he will praise God for His salvation.  He recognizes that he may not be able to put things right in his own life, or change his ways, but he should feel the brokenness of his life.  That should make him brokenhearted.   The world is a mess because each “I” fails to be human.

Repentance and the Liturgy do not require that we be angels, but rather that we be fully human.  Repentance and the Liturgy do not demand from us that we consider ourselves to be worthless worms wallowing in dung, but rather calls us to be the humans that God created us to be – the creature which is greater than angels or any of the greatest of animals.

For it was not to angels that God subjected the world to come, of which we are speaking. It has been testified somewhere, “What is man that you are mindful of him, or the son of man, that you care for him? You made him for a little while lower than the angels, you crowned him with glory and honor, putting everything in subjection under his feet.” Now in putting everything in subjection to him, he left nothing outside his control. As it is, we do not yet see everything in subjection to him. … For surely it is not with angels that he is concerned but with the descendants of Abraham.   (Hebrews 2:5-8, 16)


In calling us to repent, God does not tell us to see ourselves as nothing, rather God tells us to “man up” – be a human being, be what God has created us to be.  Humans are created to be greater than the angels and God is far more concerned with us than with the heavenly host. (As we sing about the Theotokos, the human par excellence – more honorable than the Cherubim, beyond compare more glorious than the Seraphim).

Our phrase, “he or she is only human,” has got it all wrong, for being human is not an admission of weakness nor of failure, but of being created in God’s image and likeness, created to have dominion over all the rest of creation, including the angels.  Even the Sabbath Day (the only thing created by God in the first creation story of Genesis 1-2 that God both blesses and makes holy) is made for us humans (Mark 2:27).  The most blessed thing of creation, the Sabbath, is made for humans not for angels. Christ is lord of this Sabbath which is made for us:

And Jesus said to them, “The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath; so the Son of man is lord even of the sabbath.”  (Mark 2:27-28)

In all things God as Lord is serving us, and this is reflected both in the imperative commands given to God in Psalm 51 and throughout the Divine Liturgy.  Repentance in King David’s experience is telling God, we recognize that we need you to be God and Lord, and we are saying we want you to be our God and Lord – so do it!  And we are emboldened by the truth that God is love, and even if God scourges us, it will be with God’s love to help us be perfect human beings.


Of course, we might then ask, but if change, repentance, new direction, metanoia is not required in the Psalm, what good does it do to acknowledge our sinfulness?  If we are simply going to continue to sin, what good does it do to recognize sin or to admit to being a sinner?   Doesn’t it then end up being like the character in (I think) a John Updike novel who says something to the effect that God made a perfect world – it is God’s duty to forgive sins and my duty to sin.  Is there nothing more to repentance?

The acknowledgement of being a sinner is also acknowledgment of God’s Lordship and right to judge and right to determine what is good and what is wrong. God is the Lord and God is love.   The metanoia part of repentance first requires us to recognize there is a Lord to whom we answer.  When we stop ourselves from all we are doing, saying or thinking to consciously (and conscientiously) stand still before God, we have also the opportunity to stop our self-willfulness.  The first step in repentance is stopping what we are currently doing.  Only when we stop ourselves can we feel the brokenness of our life, and feel the broken heartedness which the Psalmist says is the condition for God to accept us again.  Even if we can’t change ourselves, we can put ourselves  before God and ask God to do all that is according to His nature to save us – from sin, from death and from ourselves.  The habitual sinner, the addict and the lazy can all recognize their own need to stand in God’s presence even when sin is active in their life.     St. John Climacus  (d. 649AD) wrote: “That all should attain to complete detachment is impossible.  But it is not impossible that all should be saved and reconciled to God ” (The Roots of Christian Mysticism, p 304).

Next:  David the Image of Repentance