“But let us return to Psalm 24. ‘To you, oh Lord,’ it says, ‘I lift up my soul; in you, my God, I put my trust.’ Truly, the rest of this psalm, concerned entirely with prayerful trust, may be read simply as commentary on the first verse.
At each service of the Divine Liturgy, going back at least the Apostolic tradition of Saint Hippolytus near the beginning of the third century, when the priest commences the central Eucharistic benediction (corresponding to the Hebrew berakah), he turns to the congregation to exhort them to intensify their prayer: ‘Let let us lift up our hearts!’ (Ano skomen tas kardias is the lovely Greek original.) In the ancient Latin version, this exhortation becomes more succinct: Sursum corda, “Hearts up!” A congregation of elevated hearts is the proper context for that great act known simply as ‘The Thanksgiving,’ Eucharistia (the priest’s next line being ‘Let us give thanks to the Lord our God!’).”
(Patrick Henry Reardon, Christ in the Psalms, p. 47)
The lifting up of the hearts is reminiscent of Christ’s words in John 3:3 in which He says we must be “born from above” to see the Kingdom of God. Although in English this text is often translated “born again“, the Greek uses a root word that is the same in John 3:3 as in the hearts being up. Literally the Greek text in the Liturgy does not have the word “lift” in it at all, but more simply says: “let us have the hearts on high.” In other words, let our hearts be born with this heavenly birth which Christ taught. The English Bibles, probably under the influence of Protestantism, change the text to speak more about a one time “conversion” (born again) by the Holy Spirit whereas in Orthodoxy it is a constantly renewed life, living not just for this world, but embracing the heavenly/spiritual life in this world in the Church as the hoped for pattern throughout our daily lives. Our hearts are being transfigured and transformed by the Holy Spirit into being one in and with the Body of Christ. This transformation in Christ by the Holy Spirit of our hearts is also the ongoing work of the spiritual life outside of the Liturgy.
So in Orthodoxy, a starets, one whose life is visibly transformed by Christ becomes the spiritual father to his disciples. “In the words of Igor Smolitsch, the great warm heart of a starets revives the shrunken, frozen hearts of those who flock to him; his perfected will reforms and sustains the imperfect wills of those who place themselves under his guidance” (Iulia De Beausobre, from Russian Letters of Spiritual Direction, p. 7). The upward call to our hearts is an ongoing transformation that we experience throughout our lives. In the Liturgy we are reminded that this is to be our daily experience of life itself.