Humility as Being Human

“’What is humility?’ had a simple but penetrating answer: ‘It is when your brother sins against you and you forgive him before he comes to ask forgiveness.’ One story, which illustrates this, suggests that it was only through realizing this kind of humility in practice that one could become reconciled to another with whom one had a disagreement.

A brother was angry with another brother for something he had done. As soon as the second one learned of this, he came to ask the brother to forgive him. But the first brother would not open the door to him. So the one who had come to ask for forgiveness went to ask an old man the reason for this and what he should do. The old man told him,
‘See if there is not a motive in your heart such as blaming your brother or thinking that it is he who is responsible. You justify yourself and that is why he is not moved to open the door to you. In addition, I tell you this: even it is he who has sinned against you, settle it in your heart that it is you who have sinned against him and justify your brother. Then God will move him to reconcile himself with you.’

Convinced, the brother did this; then he went to knock at the brother’s door and almost before he heard the sound the other was first to ask pardon from the inside. Then he opened the door and embraced him with all his heart.”

(Douglas Burton-Christie, The Word in the Desert, pp. 252-253)


Forgiveness Sunday: Starting the Journey Home

Great Lent is often metaphorically described as a journey.  It is not a journey that we embark on by ourselves, but we do sojourn with our community of fellow believers.  It is a strange journey though.  Often when groups start on a sojourn more people begin the journey than finish it, as some always drop out along the way.  Lent is not like that.  For today we will begin the Lenten journey, officially it begins at Forgiveness Vespers tonight.  And while we all should be there to wish each other a good journey, sadly only a few well wishers will show up.  But at Pascha, the end of the journey, suddenly everyone wants to be there even if they didn’t sojourn at all.

The Lenten Journey is strange for another reason – for all of the spiritual hymns suggest that we are not beginning our journey today, but rather are headed home.  We are now far away from home, we are in exile in this land we call home – like the Prodigal Son, we find ourselves far away from home.  Where we are is a land of exile, even if earth is the only planet we’ve ever been on – and yes even the United States of America turns out to be a land of exile, not paradise.  And we only have to pay attention to the news to remember this – this is a land in which we use guns to murder our children.

But out true home is God’s paradise, and that is where we are headed, to the kingdom of God.    We are not leaving home, but going home.  And the foods we will eat on the way – Lenten foods – are not foreign foods, but the foods of paradise.  We have been away from home so long that we have forgotten what God gave to us.   Our Lenten sojourn is to revive in us that sense that we are in exile here and we need to find our way home, to our heavenly Father’s home.  In the Narnia books, if you read them, you might remember that the witch gave the children a candy delight which they loved so much that they forgot their true home.  That is the world which seduces us into wanting this to be the only world there is.  We think America is great again, so we aren’t even looking for our true home.

In a few hours we will embark on that noble journey which will last 7 weeks.  Few of us are ever willing to travel for seven weeks to get somewhere.  But Great Lent is a 7 week sojourn which is worth every minute, if we make it so.   We will be challenged by the duties we are to perform – forgiving one another, fasting, repenting, praying, maintaining sobriety, loving, being spiritually vigilant, attending the weekday church services.

Sometimes when we think about this great voyage of Lent, the image which comes to mind is that Pascha is all light, the light at the end of the tunnel.  The tunnel which we must pass through to get to the light is darkness.  This is often how we feel about Great Lent.  But the image is not correct.  In today’s Epistle we heard these words:

Romans 13:11-14:4
And do this, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep; for now our salvation is nearer than when we first believed. The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. Let us walk properly, as in the day, not in revelry and drunkenness, not in lewdness and lust, not in strife and envy. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to fulfill its lusts.

The imagery of today’s epistle is not that we are moving into darkness, but rather we are putting the darkness behind us.  The darkness is ending and the light is dawning on us.

In Lent we are moving into the Light.  So one of the hymns of Vespers tonight says:

The Lenten Spring shines forth, the flower of repentance!

Let us cleanse ourselves from all evil, crying out to the Giver of Light:

Glory to You, O lover of mankind!

We are to awaken from our spiritual hibernation and joyfully embrace the Light of Great Lent who is Jesus Christ.

One image to keep in mind – it is said in dealing with alcoholism and other addiction that the definition of insanity is to do the same things over and over but to expect that one will get a different result.  Nothing changes unless we do something different.  Great Lent is the time to stop the insanity, to stop our addictions and to do things differently:  repent, forgive, pray and love.

Forgive others from your heart and God will forgive you.   Treat people as if you have forgiven them.  Do it not to change them but to change yourself.

This past week in our country we had yet another instance of gun violence in which 17 people died in in one shooting incident.  A  young man with a gun inflicted untold pain on so many families in Parkland, Florida, but really across our nation.

Today is forgiveness Sunday and I want us to think about another story of a young person who lost her life to violence in an event that happened over 100 years ago in Italy.

Maria Goretti, an 11 year old Italian girl who was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church.  Maria’s father died when she was 9 years old, and her mother and siblings lived in poverty, sharing a house with another family.  On July 5, 1902, Maria was home sewing and watching her younger siblings when the teenage son of the family whom they shared the home with attacked Maria with the intent of raping her.  Maria resisted her assailant and he stabbed her 14 times.  She lived about 24 hours after the assault and before she died she forgave her attacker who because he was a teenager was spared the death sentence and instead was sentenced to 30 years in prison.   While in prison, her assailant had a vision of Maria who came to him to say she had forgiven him.  She handed him a bunch of lilies but as soon as he took them in his hand they wilted and died.  He repented of his sin against Maria and when after 30 years  he was released from prison he became a lay monk and even attended the service in which Maria was declared to be a saint.

We are to forgive those who trespass against us – we forgive the sinner, we don’t forgive the trespass, for we cannot always undo the trespass.  Maria forgave her assailant but not what he did to her, for in the end he murdered her.

Maria understood the words of today’s Gospel that we are to forgive.  Maybe you feel someone you know has offended you and you can’t forgive them, maybe they even stabbed you 14 times by their deeds and comments.  Eleven year old Maria Goretti shows us it is possible to forgive such a person.

Our sojourn begins with forgiveness.

The Christmas Spirit: Time for Reconciliation


“You have heard that it was said to the men of old, ‘You shall not kill; and whoever kills shall be liable to judgment.’ But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment; whoever insults his brother shall be liable to the council, and whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be liable to the hell of fire. So if you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.”  (Matthew 5:21-24)

In the 4th Century, Evagrios of Pontus, a Christian monk, was a prolific writer concerning the spiritual life.  Unfortunately, at times his theology drifted away from what the Church officially taught and approved through the Ecumenical Councils.  Nevertheless, his writings on the spiritual life were very influential and his spiritual advice continued to be passed down through Christian history.  In the short few stanzas below, Evagrios offers us advice about what we should do before going to Communion: forgive and be reconciled with your fellow parishioners.

God is in want of nothing

and shows no particular favoritism,

but he certainly did not want to receive that man

who came to him with a sacrificial gift

until he had first been reconciled with his neighbor

who had a grievance against him.

So think, and discern carefully

how you ought to offer spiritual incense to God

on the altar of your spirit,

so that it will indeed be an acceptable gift.”

(The Book of Mystical Chapters,Translated by Anthony McGuckin, pp 36-37)

“Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among men with whom he is pleased!”  (Luke 2:14)

The birth of Christ is announced by angels with a message of peace among people with whom God is pleased.  Where does that message of peace begin?  In your heart, as you think about your neighbor, fellow parishioner, relative or co-worker.  Let the peace of Christmas take root in your heart this year and establish that peace and reconciliation which the Nativity of Christ means for us who believe.


Confession as Love and Communion

“Our culture encourages us from an early age to be strong and assertive, to handle matters alone. Yet, for the spiritual wisdom of the early desert, such a way is false; it is, in fact, the way of the Devil. For ‘we are members one of another’ (Rom. 12:5), not islands unto ourselves. And the Orthodox spiritual way proposes a variety of contexts within which we may begin to open our hearts and affirm the communion that exists among us: these include the sacramental way of confessing to a parish priest and the spiritual way of sharing with an experienced elder, whether male or female. People need others because often the wounds that they feel are too deep to admit to themselves; sometimes, the evil is too painful to confront alone. The sign, then, according to the Orthodox spiritual way, that one is on the right track is the ability to share with someone else. This is, of course, precisely the essence of the sacrament of confession or reconciliation. Yet repentance (or metanoia) should not be seen in terms of remorse, but rather in terms of reconciliation, restoration, and reintegration. Confession is not some kind of transaction or deal; it defies mechanical definition and can never be reduced in a juridical manner merely to the – albeit significant – act of absolution.

Confession is not some narcissistic self-reflection. Sin is always understood in Orthodox spirituality as a rupture in the ‘I-Thou’ relationship of the world; otherwise metanoia could easily lead to paranoia. Instead, genuine confession always issues in communion; it is ultimately the ability to utter, together with at least one person, ‘Our Father’. It is the sacrament of the Eucharist, the mystery of communion, lived out day by day.” (John Chryssavgis in The Cambridge Companion to Orthodox Christian Theology, p 160)

Reconciliation and Holy Communion

Sts Peter and Paul

Preparing ourselves to receive Christ in Holy Communion requires us to bring peace to our own soul.   We may not be able to bring peace to the world, but we have an ability to bring peace to our selves, to our hearts.  In the following comment, St. John Chrysostom (d. 407AD) exhorts us to make ourselves be at peace with our fellow parishioners.   He speaks about one’s enemies, but it is obvious in what he writes that he is not talking about some distant, external  enemy of the nation.  He is referring to a friend, fellow parishioner, acquaintance, or someone you interact with on a personal level who has in some way offended you or caused you hurt.

“You are going to receive your king in communion. And when your king comes into your soul, it must be very tranquil and still. Your thoughts must be marked with the deepest peace. But you were treated most unjustly and you cannot bear to put aside your anger.

Why, then, do you do even greater wrong and more serious harm to yourself? Whatever your enemy may do to you, he will not treat you as badly as you treat yourself if you refuse to be reconciled to him and if you keep trampling underfoot the laws of God. Did your foe outrage you? Tell me, is that why you outrage God? To refuse to be reconciled to the enemy who has caused you pain is not the act of a man who is taking revenge on his foe. It is the act of a man who is outraging God, who gave us these laws.

Therefore, do not look back on the foe who is your fellow servant; do not look back on how deeply he has harmed you. Rather, put God before your mind and the fear of him which you should feel. Force yourself to be reconciled to the enemy whose countless evil acts have caused you pain. Then, consider that the greater the violence you will endure in your own soul, the greater will be the honor you will enjoy from God, who gave these commandments. Just as you receive him here with great honor, so will he receive you in heaven with great glory. He will give you an infinitely richer reward because you obeyed his laws. May all of you come to this reward by the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom be to the Father glory, honor, power, and worship, together with the Holy Spirit for ever and ever, world without end. Amen.” (On the Incomprehensible Nature of God, p 183)

Images from the Prodigal Son

Typikon DecodedThe second of the Pre-Lenten Sundays is that of the Prodigal Son based on the Gospel Lesson of Luke 15:11-32. 

According to Archimandrite Job Getcha, THE TYPIKON DECODED, this Gospel in a more ancient tradition was read on the second Sunday of Great Lent in Jerusalem.  The Prodigal Son became a pre-Lenten Gospel lesson in Constantinople in the 9th-10th Century.  It was mentioned as being used in Palestine by St. John of Damascus in the 8th Century. 

I found a few of the hymns from the Saturday evening Vespers to contain interesting imagery, somewhat only tangential to the Gospel lesson.  The first has a theme of planting and the harvest.  The earth is portrayed as being “rich and fertile” – in other words, there is nothing wrong with the earth we live on.  But all that we humans planted on earth were “the seeds of sin” and thus could harvest nothing but “the sheaves of evil.”  In the hymn we humans fail to use sorrow/repentance to properly thresh the harvest, so now we have to beg God to allow His love to “become the breeze to winnow the straw of our worthless deeds.”  God has to do the work that we should be doing for ourselves.




The hymn ties in the theme of Adam being cast out of the Garden of Eden by God and being sent to cultivate the ground of earth out of which Adam had originally been fashioned (Genesis 3:23).  The earth is fertile but humans end up planting only the seeds of sin.  But in the end of the hymn there is a prayer for God the Lord of the Harvest (Matthew 9:37) not to accept any offering we might make from the fruit of our labors, but rather to transform us humans so that we might be “like precious wheat to be stored in heaven.”  (see Matthew 13:30).  No longer is the fruit of our labor the issue, but rather we become the harvest which God is really concerned about and which He will store in heaven.  The hymn is a metaphorical marvel with the most interesting images.




In the above hymn, it is interesting that the Prodigal’s father is referred to as “that good man” who celebrates “with heavenly joy” – obviously the Gospel lesson is being read more as a parable than as an allegory.  For reading the father as a good man indicates he is not God the Father, an interpretation which is actually closer to the Gospel text itself.  In the Gospel parable that Jesus teaches, the Prodigal says he has sinned both against heaven and against his father (Luke 15:18, 21) which would tend to indicate that his father is his earthly father and the sin against heaven (God) is an additional offense (the Prodigal has offended both his dad and God).  We tend unthinkingly to slide into allegorical interpretation and assume the father of the parable is God the father.  But the hymn calls upon us to imitate the Prodigal’s father and “to offer thanks to the Father who loves all people”. This is a surprising take on a Gospel lesson we have so totally allegorized that we never think of ourselves as imitating the father of the parable.

 Indeed the father sacrificing the fatted calf in the parable is an offering of thanksgiving to God;  thus the Prodigal’s dad does not represent God the Father but is the earthly father of the Prodigal and his older brother.   The parable’s father, 2 sons and servants are all humans under the dominion of God.  The hymn extracts from the Gospel a number of lessons we sometimes ignore.  The hymn tells us to imitate the thanksgiving of the Prodigal’s father!  We Orthodox almost exclusively these days think we are supposed to imitate the Prodigal’s repentance, but if the Gospel pericope is read as parable (and not pure allegory) we are being taught to imitate the thanksgiving of the parable’s father as well. We are to be thankful when lapsed parishioners and sinners return or turn to the Church.  We are not to be like the older brother and judge them as fallen, but to be like the father and welcome them as full members of the family.  We are to imitate the parable’s father and try to reconcile the faithful with the lapsed.

The hymn tradition in our Church has not so narrowly pigeon-holed the parable as we sometimes do by assuming it has only a (pre-)Lenten theme.  For beyond the usual theme of personal repentance, the parable of the Prodigal Son and Forgiving Father also calls us to thanksgiving, to forgiveness and to reconciliation.  If Lent is only about fasting, then it becomes very self-centered which is just the opposite of what Lent is about.  For Lent is about learning to love God and love neighbor.   We are to love as the prodigal’s father loved in order to be reconciled with those from whom we have become alienated – even family members and those who have offended us.  This is the true story of Great Lent.  We are to become thankful for those who repent, seek reconciliation, salvation and forgiveness.  The Lord God reminds us about the true nature of fasting through the Holy Prophet Isaiah (58:6-7):

 “Is not this the fast that I choose: to loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the thongs of the yoke, to let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke?  Is it not to share your bread with the hungry, and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh?”

Is not this the lesson of the parable of the Prodigal Son:  loosing the bonds of wickedness of the Prodigal and of his older brother.   It is a year of jubilee  parable – forgiving debts, letting the oppressed go free rather than oppressing them, breaking the yokes that bind us, sharing our bread with the hungry even with a prodigal son and brother who squandered his riches.  We are not to avoid our brothers and sisters who suffer as a result of their own sins, but we are to be reconciled with them should they ask.  They may come back as hired servants and not children, but they are to be embraced even on those terms for wishing to be reconciled to God and neighbor.

The other surprise of the hymn is the unexpected reference in the last line of the hymn to Christ “the victim” to whom we are to direct our thanks just like the Prodigal’s father does to God.  This very much ties in with the opening line of the above hymn which says the purpose of the parable is to help us learn the power of the goodness of God.  It doesn’t focus on what today we assume the parable is about: the repentance of the prodigal child.  Rather it directs our attention to the power of God’s goodness.  We can return to God, not because of our repentance but because of the sacrifice of Christ.  Christ has made reconciliation possible.

Finally, we take a look at the Ikos hymn from Matins for the Prodigal Son.   In this hymn (below) we are reminded that when we listen to the Gospel lesson proclaimed in church we are hearing the very voice of the Savior.  These are the words by which He chose to teach us.  Christ Himself speaks to us through the Scriptures so we really need to listen, paying careful heed to what we hear.

“Every day our Savior teaches us with His own voice: so let us listen to the Scriptures on the Prodigal Son who regained wisdom, and let us follow the good example of his repentance with faith, and with humility of heart cry out to Him who knows all secrets: 

We have sinned against You, merciful Father, and are not worthy ever again to be called Your children as before. 

But since by nature You are the Lover of mankind, RECEIVE ME A PENITENT AND MAKE ME AS ONE OF YOUR HIRED SERVANTS.”

The hymn points to another theme of the parable: humility.  We are not asking God to restore us as His children – our sins have proven we are not worthy to be called the children of God.  Rather we can through repentance seek only to become like God’s hired servants.  In other words we embarrassingly have to acknowledge we don’t do God’s will because we love Him,  but only seek God because He rewards us – that is how hired servants behave!  We are not God’s children loyal to Him for no other reason but love.  NO, our true wish is to get paid for what we do – we want to get into heaven and avoid hell.

The parable calls us to be brutally honest about our motives!  God does accept us even on those terms just as the forgiving father welcomed his prodigal son.   We can even repent of this self-serving attitude and humbly teach ourselves to serve Him in love not for reward.  We can imitate Christ and learn how to be His loving children by denying ourselves and taking up our crosses to follow Him.

Praying (XI)

This is the 23rd  blog in a series exploring various aspects of “prayer.”  The first blog is “Why Pray?” and the previous blog is Praying (X).

Prayer means reconciliation with God.  This in turn implies that there is a proper attitude for approaching God in prayer: humility, admitting one’s sins, seeking God’s forgiveness, repenting and thus making the effort to change one’s heart and way of life.

 “Do not neglect prayer: it is then in particular that God will be reconciled with you when you on your own account appeal to him, when you present a mind purified, thoughts that are alert, when you do not make idle petitions, as many people do, their tongue saying the words while their soul wanders in every direction—through the house, the marketplace, the city streets.”  (St. John Chrysostom, OLD TESTAMENT HOMILIES Vol 3, p 60)

Prayer means reconciliation with your enemies. Abraham Lincoln is credited with saying, “The best way to destroy an enemy is to make him a friend.”  If we can reconcile to others, we can eliminate our enemies!

In prayer we bring ourselves to pray for the world, including those who have offended us or whom we don’t particularly like.

“Abba Zeno said, ‘If a man wants God to hear his prayer quickly, then before he prays for anything else, even his own soul, when he stands and stretches out his hands towards God, he must pray with all his heart for his enemies. Through this action God will hear everything that he asks.’“  (The Sayings of the Desert Fathers,  Prayer Book – In Accordance with the Tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church , kindle Loc. 3662-65)

Prayer is an action we are to do at all times and places.  We are to pray unceasingly, and we do this if we constantly remember God.  When we become so involved in our daily lives that we forget God, then we forget to pray as well.

St. Maria Skobtsova

“Those who desire to free themselves from their corruption ought to pray not merely from time to time but at all times; they should give themselves always to prayer, keeping watch over their intellect even when outside places of prayer. When someone is trying to purify gold, and allows the fire of the furnace to die down even for a moment, the material which he is purifying will harden again. So, too, a man who merely practices the remembrance of God from time to time loses through lack of continuity what he hopes to gain through his prayer. It is a mark of one who truly loves holiness that he continually burns up what is worldly in his heart through practicing the remembrance of God, so that little by little evil is consumed in the fire of this remembrance and his soul completely recovers its natural brilliance with still greater glory.”  (St Diadochos of Photiki, THE PHILOKALIA , Kindle Loc. 8687-96)

Next: Praying (XII)

Zacchaeus: A Contagious Change of Heart?

The Gospel lesson of Luke 19:1-10 is a parable which is wonderfully adaptable to many lesson regrading discipleship and the Christian life.  The Gospel parable speaks to us not only about the change which must occur within our hearts for us to follow Christ, but suggests to us that the change of heart also changes our relationships with everyone else.

“It’s an epiphany for him, and in a funny, upside-down way, he is singled out by Jesus much as Jesus was singled out by God at his own baptism. Jesus, at his baptism, is identified as the son of God, and beloved; so Zacchaeus is called on by name, a name which means ‘innocent’ or ‘clean’ – not at all how he is perceived by those around him – and clearly, he gets the message that he is beloved. From that sense of beloved-ness comes his change of heart, his metanoia. It is left for us to imagine what comes from that change. But I can only think that it will ultimately change the heart of the rest of Jericho, as well. That this change of personal fiscal policy on the part of the chief tax collector is going to change the attitudes of those around him.” (Sister Katrina – Nun of New Skete, GOSPEL REFLECTIONS, pg. 46)

See also Zacchaeus – A Change of Heart

John 3:16

“For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son,

that whoever believes in him

should not perish but have eternal life”  (John 3:16).

But God proves his love for us in that while we were sinners Christ dies for us (Rom. 5:8): God, on the contrary, shows the extraordinary degree of his love for us in that the death of Christ happened not for righteous people but for sinners.[…]After  all, if while enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more now that we are reconciled shall we be saved by his life (Rom. 5:10): if while adversaries and enemies we were granted such care that he gave over to death the Son for us, how could it be that with reconciliation made we do not have a share in eternal life?”  [Robert Charles Hill  (Tr.), Theodoret Commentary on the Letters of St. Paul   Vol 1, pg.71]